With food in short supply, people used recipes that required limited ingredients or used small amounts of rationed foods, were creative in making alternatives to more expensive items and also ensured that there was no waste. Bread in particular was used to the last crumb in a variety of ways.

Kitchen at 10 Busby Street

Welsh Rarebit (serves 4)
40 grams stale bread crusts, 4 tablespoons of milk, 50 grams grated cheese, 1 teaspoon mustard,
1 teaspoon salt, Pinch of pepper, 15 grams butter,4 rounds of toast

Soak the stale crusts in water and squeeze them out. Put the soaked crusts into a bowl and add the milk, half the cheese, salt, pepper and mustard. Stir until well mixed. Melt butter in a saucepan then add bread and cheese mixture. Stir well and cook until hot. Spread the mixture on the rounds of toast. Sprinkle the rest of the cheese over the toast and grill until the topping is light brown. Serve hot.

Bread and Milk
1 ¼ cups milk, 1 thick slice of bread, 1 teaspoon sugar (optional)

Remove the crusts and cut into squares and place in bowl. Heat milk in a saucepan, add sugar and pour over bread. Alternatively, sprinkle sugar over the bread and milk. Serve hot.

Bread Pudding
Grease a small pie dish. Put two tablespoons of fresh breadcrumbs into a basin and add 2/3 cup of heat milk. Add one tablespoon sugar. Stir the yolk of an egg into the milk and breadcrumbs. Beat the egg white until stiff and stir into the mixture. Pour into a small, greased pie dish. Stand the dish in a baking dish containing cold water and bake in a slow oven for about 10 – 15 minutes or until set. Serve hot or cold.

Christmas Pudding (without eggs)
Mix together 1 cup flour, 1 cup breadcrumbs, 1 cup sugar, half a cup suet, 1 cup mixed dried fruit and 1 teaspoon mixed spice. Add 1 cup grated potato, 1 cup finely grated carrot and a level teaspoon of bicarbonate of soda dissolved in 2 tablespoons of hot milk. Mix all together, turn into a well greased pudding basin. Boil or steam for 4 hours.

Breadcrumbs
Place the crusts of bread and very stale pieces on a tray in a very slow oven and allow them to dry thoroughly. Crush on a board with a rolling pin until very fine and store in a glass bottle.

Quick clean for the mincer. Run a small quantity of stale bread through the machine. It will clean the blades and dislodge pieces of fat and gristle wedged in the fine knives.

Alternative recipes where the usual ingredients were unavailable:

Baked custard (when eggs are scarce)
Boil sago or rice in milk, or water and milk, thicken with custard powder and sprinkle with grated nutmeg. Bake until brown on top.

Mock Apricot Filling (for tarts)
Grated carrot, plum jam and almond flavouring.

Mock Chutney
Mix Worcestershire sauce with apricot jam. Add a few raisins, soaked in a little warm water.

Mock Cream
Soften 1/2lb margarine in basin with 1 tablespoon boiling milk. Add ½ cup castor sugar and beat to cream for 5 minutes. Dissolve ½ teaspoon gelatine in cup with 2 tablespoons boiling water. Gradually add to creamed mixture until light and fluffy. Flavour with vanilla.

Mock Duck
Fry one medium disced onion in good ounce butter. Add one large peeled tomato, ½ teaspoon or more salt, ½ teaspoon herbs, one large well beaten egg. Delicious spread on toast or used as a sandwich filling.

Mock Maple Syrup
Mix 2 tablespoons of golden syrup with a tablespoon of honey, a teaspoon of lemon juice and a tablespoon of boiling water. Stir well and serve hot.

Mock Raspberry Jam
9lb melon minced. Stand all night then strain off juice. Add 6lbs sugar, boil till it jells. Add 11/2 bottles raspberry cordial extract and 1 tin raspberry jam. Bring to boil. Bottle while hot.

Mock Sausages
Boil 1 cup of rolled oats in ¾ cup of salted water for 15 minutes, then add finely chopped onion for flavour. Mix well and empty into a basin. When cool, add 1 beaten egg, pepper and herbs to taste, 1 cup breadcrumbs. Shape into sausages, roll in flour and fry in deep boiling fat until golden brown.

Mock Yorkshire Puddings
Thick slices of stale bread put around the roast beef for the last 15 minutes or so makes an excellent substitute for Yorkshire Pudding. Remove most of the fat before adding the bread and turn a couple of times to brown nicely.

Homemade Cordials:

Ginger Beer
To make a ginger beer plant, place in jug or china basin (do not use metal) ½ cup sugar, 1 dessertspoon ground ginger, juice of one lemon and almost 1 quart water. Cover with net and allow to stand for 3 days. Pour off almost all liquid and feed for 4 days with 1 teaspoon sugar and ½ teaspoon ginger each day, stirring after each addition. Use the plant by putting 4 quarts water, 4 cups sugar, juice 4 lemons, 2 dessertspoons ginger and the plant into a large dish. Cover and leave until the next day, stirring occasionally. Strain and bottle but do not stir before bottling. Ready for drinking in about 3 days after bottling. Residue in dish is the plant, which should be fed as before, but feeding should be continued for 7 days instead of 4 before making the beverage. Plant (really fungus) increases in size after each making and, after about 6 lots, can be halved to form 2 separate plants.

Homemade Passiona
Remove the pulp from eight or more passionfruit into a fair-sized jug and add two teaspoons of citiric acid. Bring two cups of sugar and a pint of water to the boil and pour over the contents of the jug: when cold, strain and bottle. Two or three tablespoons to a glass of water makes a delicious drink.